Accurately simulate an LED
Accurately simulate an LED
03.20.2023 Circuits

Solid-state-lighting applications are quickly moving into the mainstream. Although they are more efficient, the LEDs that produce the low-cost light often require a complicated driver circuit. Testing the driver circuit using LEDs, although easy, yields only typical results...

Battery simulator has variable ESR response
Battery simulator has variable ESR response
03.16.2023 Circuits

You may lack experience and hardware when designing battery-operated products. The battery life of a product can depend more on the ESR (equivalent series resistance) than the terminal voltage...

ppm distortion quartz stabilized oscillator
9 ppm distortion, quartz stabilized oscillator
03.15.2023 Articles

A spectrally pure sine wave oscillator is required for data converter; filter and audio testing. Figure provides a stable frequency output with extremely low distortion. This quartz stabilized 4 kHz oscillator has less than 9 ppm...

Photosensing ambient background
Photosensing with ambient background
03.13.2023 Articles

Trying to shield ambient light from your photo circuit is not a trivial task. You would think that you could just cover your circuit with your hands, but that is not a solution: Pulse oximeters depend on the translucency of flesh...

single cell laser diode driver using
A single cell laser diode driver using the LT1110
03.11.2023 Circuits

Recently available visible lasers can be operated from 1.5 V supplies, given appropriate drive circuits. Because these lasers are exceptionally sensitive to overdrive, power to the laser must be carefully controlled lest it be damaged...

Method sets voltage multiple-output converters
Method sets voltage in multiple-output converters
03.08.2023 Circuits

When you design a transformer for any power converter, you face several compromises. You must trade off core size against the number of primary turns and flux density...

Low-power super-regenerative receiver targets 433-MHz ISM
Low-power, super-regenerative receiver targets 433-MHz ISM band
03.07.2023 Circuits

Designers often choose a super-regenerative receiver – despite its frequency instability and poor selectivity – for battery-powered, short-range, wireless applications in which power consumption is a major issue...

Adjustable power supply
Adjustable 0 V to 5 V power supply
03.06.2023 Circuits

Linear regulator ICs are commonly used in variable power supplies. Common types such as the 317 can be adjusted as low as 1.25 V in single-supply applications. At low output voltages power losses in these regulators can be a problem...

90 micro Precision Voltage-to-Frequency Converter
90 µA Precision Voltage-to-Frequency Converter
03.02.2023 Circuits

Figure 1 is a micropower voltage-to-frequency converter. A 0 V to 5 V input produces a 0 kHz to 10 kHz output with a linearity of 0.05%. Gain drift is 80 ppm/°C. Maximum current consumption is only 90 µA...

Inverted regulator increases choice reduces complexity
Inverted regulator increases choice and reduces complexity
03.01.2023 Circuits

Most circuits are referenced to ground, where relatively low-voltage components can monitor and control the low side of a load but not the high side. For example, nearly any low-voltage rail-to-rail-input op amp can detect a voltage increase indicating overcurrent through a resistor that connects between the load and ground...