John R Ambrose
Demodulators, directional circuits, and other electronics applications often need two sine waves with a 90° difference in phase – a sine wave and its cosine wave. Engineers typically use analog filters to create the phase shift. This approach, however, offers a limited frequency range. Using the circuit in Figure 1, you can make a swept sine/cosine pair at frequencies of less than 1 Hz to 25 kHz.
|Figure 1.||This circuit lets you make a swept sine/cosine pair at frequencies
of less than 1 Hz to 25 kHz.
The Mixed Signal Integration MSFS5 selectable lowpass/bandpass switched-capacitor filter removes the harmonics from a square wave you apply to its inputs. The clock for the MSFS5 is 100 times the input square wave. The 74HC390 and 74HC74 form a divide-by-25 and a divide-by-two circuit. The Q outputs from the 74HC74 connect to the two divide-by-two circuits in the 74HC390A, which produces square waves that are 1/100 of the filter clock’s frequency and are 90° out of phase from each other. A square wave at CMOS levels would saturate the filter, so the circuit uses resistor dividers R1 through R4 to reduce the signal’s amplitude.
|Figure 2.||The phase reading on the scope is –89.85°.|
Figure 2 shows the output of the two filters at 20 kHz with a system clock of 2 MHz. Note that the phase reading on the scope is at –89.85°. When swept in frequency, the phase varies from –89° to –91°. Figure 3 shows a 20-kHz Lissajous pattern.
|Figure 3.||When swept in frequency, the phase
varies from –89° to –91°.
Measuring the circuit’s distortion using a spectrum analyzer and an Audio Precision audio analyzer shows a THD (total harmonic distortion) of –49 dB. Testing shows that the circuit has no discontinuity at the filter outputs with either FSK (frequency-shift keying) or FM (frequency modulation).
You may have to register before you can post comments and get full access to forum.