Articles - 5

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  1. There are two basic filter topologies that everyone recommends when they start to design their signal chain: multiple-feedback (MFB) or Sallen-Key topologies. But what are the differences and why would you choose one over the other? MFB filtering ...
    16-10-2023
  2. Simplicity and low cost sustain the popularity of passive PWM DAC ripple filters despite their limitations. One of these limitations is a high output impedance caused by the series sum of filter resistance(s) (R F in Figure 1, one resistor for each ...
    05-10-2023
  1. You use limit switches to switch off a motor if it reaches one of its two end positions. Even if you build a microprocessor-based motor controller, you should switch off a motor with hardware by building a safety interlock. Such a circuit works by ...
    19-09-2023
  2. They both have advantages and limitations. So which one is right for your application? It is an engineering truism that there is no such thing as a perfect solution just the best solution for the problem at hand. That holds particularly true for ...
    13-09-2023
  3. Sometimes, the need arises for a low-distortion buffer amplifier capable of handling bipolar signals. You can use an op amp or integrated buffer for these applications, but for more flexibility, a discrete design may prove useful. Applications ...
    04-09-2023
  4. Most engineers are familiar with boost converters, which step up the output voltage (V OUT ) to a value that exceeds the input voltage (V IN ). They are also familiar with buck-boost converters and single-ended primary-inductor converter (SEPIC), ...
    22-08-2023
  5. The 8-bit resolution of a peripheral DAC (such as the ATtiny family, for instance) is often insufficient. Let’s see how the problem can be solved using on-chip resources. The circuit in Figure 1 shows a method to improve the resolution of a ...
    10-08-2023
  6. The linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) is an electromechanical transducer that senses the mechanical displacement of a core and produces a proportional AC voltage at the output. High resolution (infinite in theory), high linearity ...
    01-08-2023
  7. One of the first problems a capacitive-sensor analog designer must face is the low-frequency cutoff. Theoretically, you must fulfill just one simple requirement: a sufficiently large input resistance of the preamplifier's first stage. In ...
    26-07-2023
  8. Synchronous rectifiers are MOSFETs, driven in such a way as to perform a rectifying function. They often take the place of diodes in the output-rectification stage of switching power converters, because of their lower on-state power loss. In power ...
    11-07-2023
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